Theologia vitae

Volume 1 (year 2008), issue 1

Být mužem, být ženou

    Manželství a rodina v biblické perspektivě
    — výklad Efezským 5,21–6,9

    (Milan Buban)

The principles of a Christian home can be found in Ephesians 5:2–6:9 (see hypotassō, allēlōn and fobos). Vertically each family member should have a personal relationship with God. Horizontally each family member relates to the other family members. Christian home as described by the apostle reminds us of a team where everybody fulfills his/her role under direct submission to Jesus Christ.

The prime reason for a wife’s submission to her husband is the fear of Christ. The church is the pattern for the wife’s behavior toward her husband. The prime reason for the love of husband to his wife is the fear of Christ. Christ is the pattern for the husband’s behavior toward his wife. Christ himself did all that was necessary so that the church could become his bride. Each husband must love his wife and each wife must respect her husband. Behind the word “respect” is fobēomai (fear). Sarah called Abraham her master. However, the narrative about Abraham does not know a Sarah that fears, but a Sarah that laughs (cf. Gen 18:12).

    Manželství a celibát pohledem rané patristiky

    (Lukáš Bujna)

Meditations about matrimony and celibacy in the work of Klement of Alexandria (a Christian author of patristic age) have its foundation in the idea of Christian chastity as the way of consecration of husbands. In his writings (Paedagogus, Stromata) Klement declares that matrimony is a real school of Christian life. Importance of chastity as a basic virtue of Christian matrimony must be seen in a historical context of philosophy and culture of the Antiquity, because Klement was influenced by the various traditions of Greek philosophical thinking.

    Role muže v rodině

    (Pavel Raus)

It is difficult for many men to live different roles in their lives. They more easily attain one specific way of behavior, either as strong, sovereign, unapproachable hero or as soft, weak, tender and sensitive. It is, though, important that men in their families are able to acquire multiple functions and select behavior apt for the specific situations. The presented work describes various roles of man in the family. Division of roles used here is a modified systematization of the roles of man developed by DeWitt. (Dave DeWitt, The Mature Man, Grasham: Vision House 1994.)

Man, in a certain sense, has to remain a child. In his relationship with God, man has to be able to receive, accept help, trust, and be led. Unless man is able to be a child, he cannot really mature. And he needs to sustain, until his adult age, abilities to learn new things, to know and discover the unexplored, to open himself to a change, to grow, and be willing to start anew again and again. Man needs to be humble enough to ask for help. Man needs further to perpetuate his independent entity. He has to continuously know himself and be himself. That then permeates any additional roles which he may be exercising in the realm of family. He becomes a man when he takes responsibility for himself. (DeWitt, ibid.) The work overviews a discussion of characteristics of a man presented by several authors. Other roles of a man are husband and father. In those roles he accepts responsibility not only for himself but for others, wife and son or daughter, as well. Finally, man has an important function in his broader family and community whether it be society or Church. The article encourages men to focus their lives onto what really matters by using the three myths formulated by Morley. (Patrick M. Morley, The Seven Seasons of a Man's Life, Grand Rapids: Zondervan 1995.)

    Role ženy v rodině

    (Dana Staňková)

The woman’s role in the family isn’t just membership in some voluntary organization, in which the rules, content, goals, duration and structure could be liberally determined by man. The woman’s role is based on permanent facts of creation. Families are more satisfied and stable, if a woman follows her husband and at the same time she is his partner, if she creates family background and home through the work that is necessary for building and maintaining, if she is sensitive to inner family space and develops it and if she is capable to be a mother to her children. Trying to find the basic axioms for woman’s role in the family, the author utilizes the Bible and the work of some Bible interpreters; she takes notice of several sociology research conclusions and observations of some marriage and family therapists.

    Podíl žen ve vedení sboru a církve:

    aplikace biblických principů

    (Viktor Ber)

This article deals with the question of possible ordination of women from the evangelical perspective. Two main perspectives on this question are described (restrictive and permissive). The author identifies problems mainly in the restrictive approach. However, the most serious problem is seen in the quasi–legal terminology in the treatment of this issue, i.e. whether women are or are not allowed to be ordained, or if they do or do not have the right to be ordained. The author suggests to move the discussion in the area of wisdom as opposed to that of law. In such case we can appreciate the distinction between womanhood and manhood and respect typical roles women and men tend to assume. At the same time we should not see these roles as an absolute determination for human lives. Women should be encouraged to understand their role as mothers and wives as extremely important. At the same time women should not a priori be excluded from any ministry in the church as there is no biblical basis for such restrictivism. The biblical texts lead us to be sensitive to God’s authority over a specific person’s calling for ministry.

    Princip „kefalé“ a služba mužů a žen v církvi

    (Pavel Černý)

The kephalē principle and the ministry of men and women in the church: The term “kephalē” expresses authority in biblical texts. This is a thesis defended in the present study from the viewpoint of biblical exegesis, patristic literature and with support from contemporary trends in psychology. Last years, it became customary to repeat mislead interpretation that the word “kephalē” marks only the origin, not the principle of authority over somebody. The study regarding the “head” principle and subordination is opened up on the background of the great Christological and Trinitarian dispute in the first centuries of the church. It is documented that subordination and the difference of roles does not delete the principle of equality. The present study in applied theology is concerned with negative phenomena inside family and church in the times when contemporary emphasis on egalitarianism replaces biblical principle of the authority of the head. Complementarity of two equal and different human beings corresponds far better to biblical emphases and patristic tradition. Case studies are provided to show how biblical teaching can influence life and functional cooperation in marriage and the church.

    Sexualita a homosexualita v biblické perspektivě

    (Karel Taschner)

Man was created by God as a sexual being, either male or female. Sexuality is a very powerful and deep aspect of our bodily being, penetrating all our relations. In order to fully comprehend our human sexuality, we must embrace its personal and social dimensions. The most important facet of this is a longing for relationship. Human sexuality is then a manifestation of man having been created for a relationship with God and people.

People have two equivalent choices to express their identity of sexual beings, marriage or celibacy. The only legitimate context for sexual intercourse, from a biblical perspective, is the context of marriage as a visible expression of a lifelong covenantal union between a man and a woman in reciprocal allegiance of love. Celibacy in all forms should be characterized by an abstinence from sexual intercourse.

Old and New Testament texts concerning the homosexual intercourse are sufficient to make the conclusion there is unambiguous prohibition of homosexual intercourse in the Biblical canon. Homosexual orientation as long as it does not manifest in deeds and conduct should not be condemned, nonetheless it does not correspond to God's ideal nor original intention. Christians believe in God's forgiving and saving presence capable of transforming all dimensions of human existence including our sexuality.


    Stemberger, Gunter; Dohmen, Christoph:
    Hermeneutika židovské Bible a Starého zákona
(Alena Hanzová)


    Zaznělo na ETK 2006
    (Vztahy mužů a žen na půdě sboru z pohledu pastoračního pracovníka. Gabriela Ela Mančalová)
    (Feministické mýty očima empirické vědy. Petr Hampl)

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